• Printed
  • Manuscript
  • Cartouche
  • Hand Coloring
  • Views
  • Animal
  • Surveys
  • Non-Map
  • Marginalia
  • Atlas


Animals appear on maps in all kinds of places, though most often in the cartouche. Sometimes, they are allegorical or part of a heraldic seal, meant to invoke nobility or the exotic. Other times, they are intended to represent local fauna—with varying levels of success. Image: detail from Gilles Robert de Vaugondy, Partie de l'Amérique septent? qui comprend la Nouvelle France ou le Canada, 1755.