During the early 18th century, Île Royale – present-day Cape Breton Island – was home to a group of displaced French settlers from Newfoundland. A fortress was constructed in 1713 at Louisbourg, to protect French Canada from the enemy. The British laid siege to Louisbourg in 1758 during the French and Indian War. Prepared by a French cartographer, this map depicts the city and fortress during this six-week struggle. With a decisive British victory, the island was ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763, and renamed Cape Breton.